Rutgers--the State University of New Jersey

School of Law, Newark

Justice Henry Ackerson Library

Pathfinder Series

SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

compiled by

Paul Axel-Lute

axellute@andromeda.rutgers.edu   (Note: Please do not send requests for legal advice to this address.)

CAUTION: Most of the information herein is current only up to October 1996. For later information, see my "Same-Sex Marriage: A Selective Bibliography," (Sept.2002--) at http://law-library.rutgers.edu/SSM.html
Last updated Sept. 19, 2002

Permission is granted to copy or disseminate this document with appropriate credit. Permission is also granted to update or enhance this document so long as it is made clear that the original compiler is not responsible for the updates or enhancements.

CONTENTS


LEGISLATION & BILLS

A. State statutes

Finding tools:

Westlaw, databases STAT-ALL, LEGIS-ALL, and ST-BILLTXT; query: marriage /s same-sex "same gender" (man /s woman) Note: in ST-BILLTXT, to restrict results to enacted bills, add to query: & pr(enacted)

Lexis: CODES library, ALLCDE, ALLALS and STTEXT files, query: marriage /s same-sex or same gender or (man /s woman) Note: in STTEXT, to restrict results to enacted bills, add to query: and version(enacted)

Cheryl Rae Nyberg, Subject Compilations of State Laws 1994-1995, REF KF 240.S795, under "Marriage" at 156-157, refers to specific footnotes in law review articles that cite state statutes.

State statutes defining marriage as between a man and a woman, and/or explicitly declaring same-sex marriages void or denying recognition to out-of-state same-sex marriages:

Alaska Stat. §§ 25.05.11(a), 25.05.013 (1996 Alaska Laws ch.21)

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 25-101, 25-112 (1996 Ariz. Laws ch. 348)

Cal. Fam. Code § 300 (Cal. Stats. 1993 ch.219 § 88)

Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. §14-2-104 (West 1989)

Del. Code tit.13, § 101(a),(d) (1996 Del.Laws ch.375)

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 741.04 (last proviso, added by 1945 Fla. Laws ch. 22643)

Ga. Code §§ 19-3-3.1, 19-3-30(b)(1) (1996 Ga. Laws p.1025)

Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 572-1, 572-1.6, 572-3 (1994 Haw. Laws ch.217 § 3)

Idaho Code § 32-201 (1995 Idaho Laws ch.104 § 3); Idaho Code § 32-209 (1996 Idaho Laws ch.331 § 1)

Ill. Stat. ch.750, Act 5, §§ 201, 212, 213.1 (1996 Ill. Pub. Act. 89-459)

Ind. Code § 31-7-1-2 (Pub.L. 180-1986)

Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 23-101, 23-115 (1996 Kan.Laws ch.142)

La. Civil Code arts 86, 89, 96 (1987 La. Acts No.886)

Md. Code, Fam. L. § 2-201 (1984 Md. Laws ch.296 § 2)

Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 551.2 - .4 (1996 Mich. Pub. Act 324);

Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 551.271, 551.272 (1996 Mich. Pub. Act 334)

Minn. Stat. Ann. § 517.01 (1977 Minn. Laws ch. 441)

Mo. Senate Bill 768, § 6 (enacted July 3,1996)

Mont. Code Ann. § 40-1-103 (1975 Mont.Laws ch.536, §4)

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 457:1,457:2 (as amended thru 1987 N.H. Laws act 218)

N.C. Stat. § 51-1.2 (1996 N.C. Laws ch.588)

P.R. Laws Ann., tit.31 § 221 (P.R.Civil Code, 1930, §68)

S.C. Code §§ 20-1-15, 20-1-10 (1996 S.C. Laws Act 327)

S.D. Codified Laws Ann. S 25-1-1 (1996 S.D. Laws ch. 161)

Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-3-103(c)(1) (1996 Tenn. Laws Pub. Ch. 1031)

Tex. Fam. Code § 1.01 (1973 Tex. Gen. Laws ch.577)

Utah Code § 30-1-2 (5) (1993 Utah Laws, 2d spec.sess. ch.14 §1)

Va. Code. Ann. § 20-45.2 (1975 Va. Acts ch.644)

State statutes providing that anti-discrimination laws are not to be construed to authorize recognition of right to same-sex marriage:

Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 46a-81r(4) (1991 Conn. Pub.Act 91-58, §36)

Minn. Stat. Ann. § 363.021 (4) (1993 Minn. Laws ch.22 § 7)

New Jersey bill

"Marriage Protection Act of 1996," N.J. Assembly No. 2193, N.J. Senate No. 1376 (introduced June 20,1996), includes same-sex marriages among marriages declared void, and provides that New Jersey will not recognize marriages from other jurisdictions which are void in New Jersey. Reintroduced in the 1998-1999 Legislature as N.J. Assembly No. 706 (Jan.13,1998) and N.J. Senate No. 1281 (July 30,1998)

Legislative History of Federal "Defense of Marriage Act," Pub. L. 104-199, 110 Stat. 2419 (approved Sept.21,1996) (to be codified at 1 U.S.C. §7, 28 U.S.C. §1738c)

Enrolled bill: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c104:H.R.3396.ENR: (this page also has link to material in the Congressional Record.)

bills: H.R. 3396 (introduced May 7,1996); S. 1740 (introduced May 8, 1996), reintroduced as S.1999, text at 142 Cong.Rec. S9073 (daily ed. July 29, 1996).

Statement by Sen. Nickles, with two "factsheets," 142 Cong. Rec. S4869-S4871 (daily ed. May 8, 1996)

Defense of Marriage Act : hearing before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives,104th Cong., 2nd Sess., on H.R. 3396, Defense of Marriage Act, May 15, 1996.: iv, 243 p. ("Serial no. 69") [ SUDOC # Y 4.J 89/1:104/69 ]

Laurence H. Tribe, "Unconstitutionality of S.1740, the so- called Defense of Marriage Act," 142 Cong. Rec. S5931-S5933 (daily ed. June 6,1996)

House Report 104-664, Defense of Marriage Act [to accompany H.R.3396], July 9, 1996 (corrected print), http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/z?cp104:hr664

House debate and passage: 142 Cong. Rec. H7270-H7280, H7441-H7449 (daily ed. July 11,1996), 142 Cong. Rec. H7480-H7506 (daily ed. July 12,1996) (includes text of H.R.3396 at H7481).

The Defense of Marriage Act : hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 104th Cong. 2nd Sess., on S. 1740 ... July 11, 1996. iv, 78 p. ("Serial no. J-104-90" ) [ SUDOC # Y 4.J 89/2:S.HRG.104-533 ]

Proposed amendments, 142 Cong.Rec. S9750-S9755 (daily ed. Sept.3,1996)

Senate debate and passage:, 142 Cong. Rec. S10100-S10125, S10129 (daily ed. Sept.10,1996)

Defense of Marriage Act / United States General Accounting Office, Office of the General Counsel. (January 31, 1997) [ SUDOC # GA 1.13:OGC-97-16 ], available in PDF at http://www.gao.gov/archive/1997/og97016.pdf; a report to the chair of the House Judiciary Committee on federal laws involving marital status. RETURN TO CONTENTS TABLE

CASELAW & ATTORNEY GENERAL OPINIONS

Finding tools

Annotation: Marriage between Persons of the Same Sex, 63 A.L.R.3d 1199 (1975). (see later Annotation:Same-Sex Marriage, 81 A.L.R.5th 1.)

Family Law Reporter (BNA), RES KF 501.A3F3, Current Developments binder, Index-summary, index heading "Homosexuality". NOTE: Index doesn't cover latest issues; check coverage of index, then check in each subsequent issue p.2 "In This Report," under same heading.

Westlaw, database AG, query: marriage /s same-sex "same gender"

Opinions against same-sex marriage

Court decisions and attorney general opinions denying licensability or recognition of same-sex marriage (note: this list excludes cases involving transsexuals):

Adams v. Howerton, 486 F.Supp. 1119 (C.D.Cal. 1980), aff'd, 673 F.2d 1036 (9th Cir. 1982)

Anonymous v. Anonymous, 67 Misc. 2d 982, 325 N.Y.S.2d 499 (Sup.Ct. 1971)

Baker v. Nelson, 291 Minn. 310, 191 N.W.2d 185 (1971), appeal dismissed for want of substantial federal question, 409 U.S. 810 (1972)

Dean v. District of Columbia, 653 A.2d 307 (D.C.Ct.App. 1995) DeSanto v. Barnsley, 328 Pa.Super. 181, 476 A.2d 952 (1984)

Estate of Cooper, 149 Misc.2d 282, 564 N.Y.S.2d 684 (Surr.Ct.1990)

Gajovski v. Gajovski, 81 Ohio App.3d 11, 610 N.E.2d 431 (1991), Jones v. Hallahan, 501 S.W.2d 588 (Ky. Ct. App. 1973)

Singer v. Hara, 11 Wash.App.247, 522 P.2d 1187 (1974)

Slayton v. State, 633 S.W.2d 934 (Tex.Ct.App. 1982)

Weaver v. G.D. Searle & Co., 558 F.Supp. 720 (N.D.Ala. 1983)

190 Ala. Op.Atty.Gen. 30, 1983 WL 41865

Ark. Op. Atty. Gen. No. 95-062, 1995 WL 256755

Me. Op. Atty. Gen. No. 84-28, 1984 WL 248975

Neb. Op. Atty. Gen. No.113, 1977 WL 25368

(Note: Neb. Op. Atty. Gen. No. 96025, 1996 WL 132907, 22 Fam.L.Rep. 1328, suggests that Nebraska might need to recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages unless preventive legislation is passed.)

Hawaii case

Baehr v. Lewin, 74 Haw. 645, 852 P.2d 44 (1993), held that statute denying marriage rights to same-sex couples may violate state constitutional equal rights provision; remanded for trial to determine if state could demonstrate compelling interest to justify the statute. Same case now styled Baehr v. Miike, 80 Haw.341, 910 P.2d 112 (1996) (denial of intervention applications of clergy and Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints). Trial was held September 10 through September 26,1996. . . . In November 1998 Hawaii's Constitution was amended to restrict marriage to opposite-sex couples, and in December 1999 the plaintiffs in Baehr were accordingly denied relief.   For documents and other information see The Hawaii Same-Sex Marriage Issue: http://www.hawaiilawyer.com/same_sex/samesex.htm (at site of law firm of Damon Key Leong Kupchak Hastert)

Shahar case

Shahar v. Bowers, 70 F.3d 1218 (11th Cir.1995) (withdrawal of job offer because of religious same-sex marriage ceremony may violate right of intimate association), vacated, 78 F.3d 499 (11th Cir. 1996); withdrawal of job offer upheld, 114 F.3d 1097 (11th Cir. 1997) (en banc, 8 to 4 decision).

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Monographs

NOTE: Library of Congress subject heading: GAY MARRIAGE

Boswell, John, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe (Villiard Books, 1994) DANA HQ 76.3.E8B68 (For a critical review, see Philip Lyndon Reynolds, "Same-Sex Unions: What Boswell Didn't Find," The Christian Century 112:49-54 (Jan.18,1995))

Eskridge, William N., Jr., The Case for Same-Sex Marriage (Free Press, 1996) HQ 76.3.U5E85. Chapter headings: "Civilizing Gays, Civilizing Straights"; "A History of Same-Sex Marriage"; "The Debate Within the Lesbian and Gay Community"; "Mainstream Objections to Same-Sex Marriage"; "The Constitutional Case: The Right to Marry"; "The Constitutional Case: Discrimination". Appendices include a list of court cases and a bibliography.

Lesbian & Gay Marriage: Private Commitments, Public Ceremonies, edited by Suzanne Sherman (Temple Univ. Press, 1992) DANA HQ 76.3.U5L47 1993 First part contains two essays: Thomas B. Stoddard, "Why Gay People Should Seek the Right to Marry" (p.13-19), and Paula Ettelbrick, "Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?" (p.20-26). Bulk of book consists of interviews with "long-term couples," some who had public ceremonies, some who did not. Appendices include directory of organizations, including "lesbian and gay-affirming religious organizations".

Maguire, Daniel C., The Moral Revolution: A Christian Humanist Vision (Harper & Row, 1986) Sage Library (New Brunswick Theological Seminary) BJ 1249.M164 1986. Includes "The Morality of Homosexual Marriage" (p.87-102), reprinted in: A Challenge to Love, edited by Robert Nugent (Crossroad, 1983) KLMR, CAMDN BX 1795.H66C46 1983 (p.118-134)

Mohr, Richard D., Gays/Justice: a Study of Ethics, Society, and Law (Columbia Univ.Press, 1988) HQ 76.3.U5M64 1988 Same-sex marriage discussed at pages 17-18.

Nava, Michael, & Robert Dawidoff, Created Equal: Why Gay Rights Matter to America (St.Martin's Press, 1994) HQ 76.8.U5N38 1994 Includes: "The Case for Gay Marriage" (p.144-156)

Sexual Orientation and the Law / the editors of the Harvard Law Review. (Harvard Univ.Press, 1990) KF 4754.5.S492 1990 Includes "The Right of Gay and Lesbian Couples to Marry" (p.95-101)

Sexual Orientation and the Law, by National Lawyers Guild, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Rights Committee, edited by Roberta Achtenberg (Clark,Boardman,Callaghan, 1985--) (looseleaf) KF 4754.5.S49. §1.07 concerns domestic partnership & same-sex marriage.

Sullivan, Andrew, Virtually Normal: an Argument about Homosexuality (Knopf, 1995) HQ 76.25.S85 1995 At pages 178-185, discusses equal access to civil marriage as centerpiece of a politics of homosexuality. For a critical review of this book, see: Diana Schaub, "Marriage Envy," The Public Interest no.122:93-102 (Winter 1996)

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Law Review Articles

Finding Tools

Current Law Index: subject heading "Same- Sex Marriage" in use since 1989. The on-line version of this index is called Legal Resource Index, and includes coverage of major legal newspapers not included in the print version. Legal Resource Index is Westlaw database LRI, and is on Lexis in the LAWREV library, LGLIND file.

Index to Legal Periodicals & Books: subject headings "Marriage" and "Homosexuality and Lesbianism".

Current Index to Legal Periodicals: subject heading "Domestic Relations". The latest eight issues of this index are on Westlaw as the CILP database.

Lynn D. Wardle, "A Critical Analysis of Constitutional Claims for Same-Sex Marriage," 1996 Brigham Young Univ. L.Rev. 1, at 96-100, lists law review articles from 1970-1975 and 1990-June 1995, categorized as pro or con same-sex marriage.

Articles from the 1976-1989 period not covered by Wardle's lists

G. Sidney Buchanan, "Same-Sex Marriage: the Linchpin Issue," 10 Univ. Dayton L. Rev. 541-573 (1985). Argues against judicial recognition of same-sex marriage, saying the question should be left to the political process. A different version of this article appears as the fifth chapter in G. Sidney Buchanan, Morality, Sex, and the Constitution (Univ.Press of America, 1985), KF 9325.B82 1985, at 127-159; the book version includes at 137-144 a section entitled "A Martian visitor interviews a Christian earthling on the issue of same-sex marriage," omitted from the article.

Deborah Gray, Note: "Marriage: Homosexual Couples Need Not Apply," 23 New England L. Rev. 515-546 (1988)

John Dwight Ingram, "A Constitutional Critique of Restrictions on the Right to Marry--Why Can't Fred Marry George--Or Mary and Alice at the Same Time?" 10 J. Contemporary Law 33 (1984), discusses same-sex marriage at 44-50.

Alissa Friedman, "The Necessity for State Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage: Constitutional Requirements and Evolving Notions of Family," 3 Berkeley Women's L.J. 134-170 (1987)

Claudia A. Lewis, Note: "From This Day Forward: A Feminine Moral Discourse on Homosexual Marriage," 97 Yale L.J. 1783-1803 (1988)

Hannah Schwarzschild, "Same-Sex Marriage and Constitutional Privacy: Moral Threat and Legal Anomaly," 4 Berkeley Women's L.J. 94-127 (1988)

Selected Articles from 1990-1995

Michael L. Closen & Carol R. Heise, "HIV-AIDS and the Non-Traditional Family: the Argument for State and Federal Judicial Recognition of Danish Same-Sex Marriages," 16 Nova L. Rev. 809-845 (1992)

Nitya Duclos, "Some Complicating Thoughts on Same-Sex Marriage," 1 Law & Sexuality 31-61 (1991)

Mary C. Dunlap, "The Lesbian and Gay Marriage Debate: A Microcosm of Our Hopes and Troubles in the Nineties," 1 Law & Sexuality 63-96 (1991)

Richard A. Epstein, "Caste and the Civil Rights Laws: from Jim Crow to Same-Sex Marriages," 92 Mich. L. Rev. 2456-2478 (1994), discussing same-sex marriage at 2473-2476.

Andrew H. Friedman, "Same-Sex Marriage and the Right to Privacy: Abandoning Scriptural, Canonical, and Natural Law Based Definitions of Marriage," 35 Howard L.J. 173-225 (1992). Includes text of Danish Registered Partnership Act, at 217-218 n.237.

Deborah M. Henson, "A Comparative Analysis of Same-Sex Partnership Protections: Recommendations for American Reform," 7 Int'l J.L. & Fam. 282-313 (1993)

Steven K. Homer, "Against Marriage," 29 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties L. Rev. 505-530 (1994). Questions the coherence of the legal concept of marriage and the worth of same-sex marriage as a goal.

Nan D. Hunter, "Marriage, Law, and Gender: A Feminist Inquiry," 1 Law & Sexuality 9-30 (1991)

Andrew Koppelman, "Why Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men is Sex Discrimination," 69 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 197-287 (1994)

Jorge Martin, Note: "English Polygamy Law and the Danish Registered Partnership Act: a Case for the Consistent Treatment of Foreign Polygamous Marriages and Danish Same-Sex Marriages in England," 27 Cornell Int'l L.J. 419-446 (1994). Includes text of Danish Registered Partnership Act at 430-431 n.79.

Richard D. Mohr, "The Case for Gay Marriage," 9 Notre Dame J.L. Ethics & Pub.Policy 215-239 (1995)

Dwight J. Penas, "Bless the Tie That Binds: a Puritan-Covenant Case for Same-Sex Marriage," 8 Law & Inequality 533-565 (1990)

Nancy D. Polikoff, "We Will Get What We Ask For: Why Legalizing Gay and Lesbian Marriage Will Not 'Dismantle the Legal Structure of Gender in Every Marriage'" 79 Va. L. Rev. 1535-1550 (1993)

Milton C. Regan Jr., "Reason, Tradition, and Family Law: A Comment on Social Constructionism," 79 Va. L. Rev. 1515-1533 (1993).

Cass R. Sunstein, "Homosexuality and the Constitution," 70 Ind. L. J. 1-28 (1994). Note: another version of this article appears as "Same-Sex Relations and the Law," 25 Metaphilosophy 262-284 (1994).

Evan Wolfson, "Crossing the Threshold: Equal Marriage Rights for Lesbians and Gay Men and the Intra-Community Critique," 21 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 567-615 (1994)

Articles from 1994-1996 not included in Wardle's list

Hadley Arkes, "Question of Principle, not Predictions: a Reply to Macedo," 84 Georgetown L.J. 321-327 (1995)

Barbara J. Cox, "A (Personal) Essay on Same-Sex Marriage,"

1 National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law. 86-90 (1995), http://www.i biblio.org/gaylaw/issue1/cox.html

Anthony D. D'Amato, "Conflict of Laws Rules and the Interstate Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages," 1995 Univ. Ill. L. Rev. 911-943 (1995)

Richard F. Duncan, "Homosexual Marriage and the Myth of Tolerance: Is Cardinal O'Connor a 'Homophobe'?" 10 Notre Dame J. L. Ethics & Pub. Policy 587-607 (1996)

Martin D. Dupuis, "The Impact of Culture, Society, & History on the Legal Process: an Analysis of the Legal Status of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States & Denmark," 9 Int'l J. L. & Fam. 86-118 (1995)

Lisa M. Farabee, Note: "Marriage, Equal Protection, and New Judicial Federalism: A View from the States," 14 Yale L. & Policy Rev. 237-286 (1996)

Robert P. George & Gerard V. Bradley, "Marriage & the Liberal Imagination," 84 Georgetown L.J. 301-320 (1995) (response to Macedo)

Deborah M. Henson, "Will Same-Sex Marriages Be Recognized in Sister States...," 32 Univ. Louisville J. Fam. L. 551-600 (1994)

Jordan Herman, Note: "The Fusion of Gay Rights and Feminism: Gender Identity and Marriage after Baehr v. Lewin," 56 Ohio St. L.J. 985-1018 (1995)

Anthony C. Infanti, "Baehr v. Lewin: a Step in the Right Direction for Gay Rights?" 4 Law & Sexuality 1-34 (1994)

Kathryn E. Kovacs, "Recognizing Gay & Lesbian Families: Marriage & Parental Rights," 5 Law & Sexuality 513-539 (1995)

Greg Ladner, "Note: Baehr v. Lewin: Will Equal Protection Lead to the End of Prohibitions on Same-Sex Marriages?" 1 National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law 126-145 (1995), http://www.ibiblio.org/gaylaw/issue1/ladner.html

Stephen Macedo, "Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind," 84 Georgetown L.J. 261-300 (1995); same-sex marriage discussed at 285-291; for responses see articles by Arkes and George, listed supra.

Robert J. Morris, "Configuring the Bo(u)nds of Marriage: the Implications of Hawaiian Culture & Values for the Debate about Homogamy," 8 Yale J.L. & Human. 105-159 (1996). Part of a symposium issue; a response is found in Angela P. Harris, Comment: "Seductions of Modern Culture," 8 Yale. J.L. & Human. 213 at 218-230.

Noel Myricks & Roger H. Rubin, "Legalizing Gay and Lesbian Marriages: Trends & Policy Implications," 9 Am. J. Fam. L. 35-44 (1995)

Mark Strasser, "Domestic Relations Jurisprudence and the Great Slumbering Baehr: on Definitional Preclusion, Equal Protection, and Fundamental Interests," 64 Fordham L. Rev. 921-986 (1995)

Paul Royal, Note: "The Right to Say 'I Do': the Legality of Same-Sex Marriage," 20 Law & Psychol. Rev. 245-261 (1996)

Herbert W. Titus, "Defining Marriage and the Family," 3 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 327-343 (1994)

Evan Wolfson, "Fighting to Win and Keep the Freedom to Marry: the Legal, Political, and Cultural Challenges Ahead,"

1 National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law 258-298 (1995), http://w ww.ibiblio.org/gaylaw/issue2/wolfson.html

Alice Woolley, "Excluded by Definition: Same-Sex Couples and the Right to Marry," 46 Univ. Toronto L.J. 471-524 (1995)

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OTHER PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Finding Tools

Three H.W.Wilson indexes, the Humanities Index, the Social Science Index, and the Reader's Guide Abstracts, all use the subject heading "Gay Marriage".

Index to Periodical Articles Related to Law: Subject Heading "Sexual Orientation"

Philosopher's Index, DANA REF Z7124.P45P46 Subject Heading "Gay Rights"

Religious & Theological Abstracts, ALEXANDER LIBRARY REF BL1.R4. Subject heading "Same-Sex Marriage" (1995--). A CD-ROM version of this tool, R&TA on CD-ROM, is found at the Sage Library (New Brunswick Theological Seminary).

Selected Articles

Gerhard O. Forde, "Law and Sexual Behavior," Lutheran Quarterly 9(1):3-22 (1995). Opposes civil-law recognition of same-sex marriages.

Beth M. Gilbert, "Gays and Lesbians under the Chupah," Reform Judaism Magazine (Summer 1996), http://www.shamash.org/reform/uahc/rjmag/696bg.html

Morris B. Kaplan, "Intimacy and Equality: the Question of Lesbian and Gay Marriage," The Philosophical Forum, 25:333-360 (1994)

Joseph Monti, "The Norm of Heterosexual Marriage," Anglican Theological Review 72(2):165-167 (1990)

Christine Pierce, "Gay Marriage," Journal of Social Philosophy 26(2):5-16 (fall 1995)

John R.W. Stott, "Homosexual 'Marriage'," Christianity Today 29(17):21-28 (1985). Opposes same-sex marriage.

Louis Weil, "The Church Does Not Make a Marriage," Anglican Theological Review 72(2):172-174 (1990). Favors the blessing of same-sex marriages.

Robert Williams, "Toward a Theology for Lesbian & Gay Marriages," Anglican Theological Review 72(2):134-157 (1990)

James Q. Wilson, "Against Homosexual Marriage," Commentary 101:34-39 (March 1996)

Gilbert Zicklin, "Deconstructing Legal Rationality: the Case of Lesbian and Gay Family Relationships," Marriage & Family Review 21(no.3-4):55-76 (1995)

WEBSITES AND A MAILING LIST

Equal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples (Canada): http://www.samesexmarriage.ca

Gay and Lesbian Marriages [pathfinder], Broward Community College Library: http://ucl.broward.cc.fl.us/pathfinders/Gay_and_Lesbian_Marriages .pdf

Gay/Lesbian Politics and Law: WWW and Internet Resources, by Steve Sanders at Indiana University: http://www.indiana.edu/~glbtpol (includes pages on "Marriage and Domestic Partnerships" and "Law & Legal Resources").

Hawaii. Commission on Sexual Orientation and the Law. Report of the Commission on Sexual Orientation and the Law [Dec.8,1995]: http://www.hawaii.gov/lrb/rpts95/sol/soldoc.html

Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies: http://www.iglss.org. Material at this site includes an economic study of "The Cost of Nonrecognition of Same Gender Marriages", by M.V.Lee Badgett and Josh A. Goldfort, Angles, vol.1, no.2 (May 1966), at http://www.iglss.org/iglss/pubs/angles/angels_1-2_p1.html

Lambda Legal Defense & Education Fund, Marriage Project http://www.lambdalegal.org/cgi-bin/iowa/issues/record2?reco rd=9

MARRIAGE-EDIT list. A moderated organizing list, devoted to the legalization of same-sex marriage. To subscribe, send one-line message "subscribe marriage-edit" to: MAJORDOMO@abacus.oxy.edu

Archived at http://abacus.oxy.edu/p ub/marriage

N.V.I.H. COC page on S.S.M. bill in Netherlands: http://www.coc.nl/index.html?file=marriage (by Kees Waaldijk, Univ. of Leiden)

Partners Task Force for Gay & Lesbian Couples: http://www.buddybuddy.com/toc.html

Queer Resources Directory: http://www.qrd.org/qrd/family/marriage/

Vermont Guide to Civil Unions, http://www.sec.state.vt.us/pubs/civilunions.htm

Vermonters for Civil Unions Legislative Defense Fund, http://www.vtmarriageaction.org and Vermont Freedom to Marry Task Force, http://www.vtfreetomarry.org RETURN TO CONTENTS TABLE